PIE (Point, illustrations, explanations)
Students demonstrating writing difficulties may benefit from the strategy PIE (Point, Illustrate, Explanations) since it is a strategy that is used to help students make sure they have all the details necessary in their writing. This strategy would most helpful if used with grades three though six. The purpose of this strategy is to help maintain the quality in a child’s writing. This strategy can be used in self contained settings to help teach the strategies in a smaller group setting and at a slower pace than in a general education setting. In a co-teaching setting, both teachers can teach the same topic, but they may be able to provide more differentiated instruction based on all the students needs in the class.

Example:
1. State your point in your writing. (It does not have to be in the first sentence but needs to be in the beginning of your writing)
2. The student will write supporting statements to illustrate the point from step one.
3. Explain what you mean so that no one can assume what you are trying to say in your writing.


http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:C451uo_o_KwJ:www.writingcenter.txstate.edu/Student-Resources/Handouts/contentParagraph/013/document/PIE%2BParagraph.pdf+PIE+(point,+illustrate,+explain)&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESh3eeI8Qly_Jaezb3MRmLRlmOdZyYXVz7tyeTJSVF-b-S6mfSHGQPBmAgF8cLxoTxPjv8HRRXtVk_AG918vrgl9N55567ek98-wvMBFBz8oBJb4gjKd6doOjLaujYj7CxPZOEZ3&sig=AHIEtbRLhpVej8CuqnCH7HzQNlZZjZAAyg

Standards

LA.4.3.2.1 - The student will draft writing by using a prewriting plan to focus on the main idea with ample development of supporting details that shows an understanding of facts and/or opinions

Reference
Wallace, G., & Bott, D. (1989). Statement-pie: A strategy to improve the paragraph writing skills of adolescents with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22(9), 541-43,553.


Peer Editing
Students demonstrating writing difficulties may benefit from the strategy peer editing, with another student from their class. Using this strategy, one student would critique another student’s writing. It is great for other students to critique a classmates writing. They learn more ways to improve their writing based on mistakes that others make, which are inappropriate to use in their writing. It is helpful to look at other peoples’ writing to see what you can do to improve your own writing skills. Peer editing can be used in grades three through six. In peer editing you are usually evaluating another students writing to make sure it is organized, has correct punctuation, is clearly and neatly written, and a student is given the opportunity to tell the writer what they like about the child’s writing (some positive comments). Peer editing can be used in self contained settings with peers who are writing on the same level. A teacher may have to assist students and look over each child’s writing and critique their writing as a small group. Co-teachers can use this as a re-teach lesson and provide more immediate feedback to students after they communicate what is expected. Both teachers need to agree on a set of expectations and present their expectations to the class.

Example:
http://go.hrw.com/resources/go_ss/teacher99/toolkit/TOOLKT17.pdf


Standards

LA.4.3.3.4 - The student will revise by applying appropriate tools or strategies to evaluate and refine the draft (e.g., peer review, checklists, and rubrics).

Reference
Jasmine, J., & Weiner, W. (2007). The effects of writing workshop on abilities of first grade students to become confident and independent writers. Early Childhood Education Journal, 35(2), 131-139.


Brainstorming Web- Graphic Organizer
Students demonstrating writing difficulties may benefit from using a brainstorming web graphic organizer. This strategy is used to organize ideas about a specific topic. The ideas that are brought up and put on the graphic organizer do not all need to be used in a students writing. This can be used in grades one through six. When using this strategy with first and second graders it may have to be used with guided instruction. In grades three through six the students can use this as an independent strategy. When using this in a self contained classroom, the students may need assistance with this tool for writing. The teacher would be able to use this in any classroom adapting it to the students needs. A brainstorming web can be used when two teachers are co-teaching. One could demonstrate how to fill out this brainstorming web and one could show how to use the ideas the children write to organize their writing. This is useful as long as the teachers’ communicates about what the goals and final expectations are for this strategy.
Example:
0743932080_007.gif

Standards

LA.4.3.1.1- The student will pre-write by generating ideas from multiple sources (e.g., text, brainstorming, graphic organizer, drawing, writer's notebook, group discussion) based upon teacher-directed topics and personal interests

Reference
James, L., Abbott, M., & Greenwood, C. (2001). How adam became a writer: Winning writing strategies for low-achieving students. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 33(3), 30-37.
Teacher Vision. (2009). Brainstorming web. Retrieved from Pearson Education website: http://www.teachervision.fen.com/classroom-management/graphic-organizers/43059.html?detoured=1



POW+WWW

POW+WWW, is a mnemonic strategy used in writing and reading.

Pick my Idea
Organize m Notes
Write and Say More

WWW- What=2 How=2
Who is the main character?
When does the story take place?
How does the story end?
How does the main character feel? How do other characters feel?

This is an excellent strategy for grades 2-5.The teacher will teach students using power point or a white board how to use the POW+WWW strategy for their writing. After showing students how to use the graphic organizer, students are given a choice to work in small groups or alone to pre-plan for their stories. For students needing visuals, the teacher will provide handouts with the POW+WWW on it. The teacher will model for ESOL students how to use the strategy for pre-writing. Students will motor difficulties can use the computer to do the POW+WWW. Students who need additional help may have the choice to work with a partner. Teacher can review basic parts of a story with students who need more intensive instruction before using POW+WWW.


Standards
LA.3.3.1.1: The Student will prewrite by generating ideas from multiple sources
LA.3.3.1.3: The student will prewrite by using organizational strategies.


Reference:
Mason, L., Harris, K., Graham, S. (2004). Pow+www, what=2, how=2 equals fun and exciting stories. Teaching Exceptional Children. 36(2), 70-73


Cubing

Cubing is a strategy designed to prepare students in reading and writing. It can be used as a pre-writing activity to get a student thinking about a topic.
This strategy can be used in all elementary grades. The teacher will introduce the cubing strategy by talking about how a topic is like a cube. He or she will explain to the students that a topic has many different sides and use a cube to demonstrate. Then the teacher will explain to the students the six different ways a topic can be explored. Each side of the cube will have a word, describe, compare, associate, analyze, apply and argues for or against. After the lesson the teacher will pass out an outline of a cube and have students make their own. Students will then write their ideas down on the cube shaped outline. Students will then get into groups and practice rolling their cubes and giving ideas. ESOL and students with special needs can have a partner to help them with the cube. The teacher can model a writing assignment using the cube. Students can compare their cubes for new ideas. Students can be grouped to ability level.



cube.png
Standards
LA.3.4.1.1: The student will write narratives based on real or imagined events or observations that include characters, setting, plot, sensory details and logical sequence of events.
LA.3.4.2.2: The student will record information related to a topic, including visual aids as appropriate.


Reference

LeNoir, D. (2003). “Theres’s nothing to eat!” a half-dozen ways to find writing ideas. The English Journal. 92(5), 28

http://forpd.ucf.edu/strategies/stratCubing.html


Computer Assisted Instruction
comp.jpg
Computer assisted instruction is a remediation presented on a computer. CAI is great to use with students when they are working individually because it gives them immediate feedback so they don’t continue to practice the wrong skill. Students in Kindergarten through twelfth grade can use this strategy.
Using the computer for writing can help students with developing ideas, organizing, outlining, and brainstorming. Some helpful programs that students can use on the computer to help with their writing are, word prediction, speech to text, text to speech, spell checker, and a thesaurus. The teacher can have students use a word processor to let them type in their stories so they can focus on content rather then the mechanics. Students with special needs may have a partner to help them use the computer. ESOL and special needs students may use speech to text, text to speech and various programs to help them with their writing. Students with motor and speech difficulties can use alternative input devices such as alternative keyboards, touch screens and voice recognition.


Standards
LA.4.5.4.2: The student will determine and use appropriate digital tools for publishing and presenting a topic


Reference
Castellani, J. & Jeffs, T. (2001). Emerging reading and writing strategies using technology. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33, 60-67
The IRIS Center, Computer-assisted instruction and writing. Retrieved from http://www.iriscenter.com/resources.html



Plan Sheet Think – Visual organizer
This strategy provides a visual guide to the students so they can plan their writing activity in a systematic way. It also helps the students to organize their ideas before writing. This strategy is mostly used in upper primary grades and secondary grades.
The students can work independently, in pairs, with peer tutors, or on small groups with teacher. Students should have available the “plan sheet think” form in their writing folder and complete it before entering in the composition stage. Allow time for students to discuss and share their forms with peers and teacher. General education teacher and co-teacher can rotate working with individuals or supporting the other groups.
The following are some components of the Plan Think Sheet:
    • WHO: Who am I writing for?
    • WHY: Why am I writing this?
    • WHAT: What do I know? (Brainstorm)
    • HOW: How can I group my ideas?
    • How will I organize my ideas?: Compare/Contrast, Explanation, Problem/Solution, Other

Standard
LA.4.3.1.3: The student will pre-write by organizing ideas using strategies and tools (e.g., technology, graphic organizer, KWL chart, log) to make a plan for writing that prioritizes ideas and addresses the main idea and logical sequence.
Reference:
Englert, C.S., Raphael, T. E., Anderson, L. M., Anthony, H. M., and Stevens, D. D. (1991). Making strategies and self-talk visible: Writing instruction in regular and special education classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 23, 337-372.

Think-Aloud (Modeling)
Students benefit from teachers modeling brainstorming techniques. This strategy is helpful for all grades.
The teacher demonstrates to the students by talking aloud the thinking process of writing a story. For example, the teacher starts by verbalizing a meaningful event in his or her life that can be use as inspiration for a story. The teacher will also jot down on the board or brainstorm sheet, the steps taken to organize the stages of writing. The students will participate by discussing the different parts of one of their stories. In addition to the whole classroom activity, the students can work on pairs or small groups to practice thinking aloud the writing process and reviewing their own work. General education teacher and co-teacher can rotate working with individuals or supporting the other groups.

Standard:
LA.4.3.2.2: The student will draft writing by organizing information into a logical sequence and combining or deleting sentences to enhance clarity.

Reference:
Mowey, S., Conahan, P., & Instructional Support System of Pennsylvania, (1995). Reading/Writing Comprehension Strategies. Retrieed from ERIC database.

Box and Explode
The “box and explode” strategy allows students to work on identifying the main idea of the story and to provide additional information related to that main idea. This strategy is used in upper elementary through secondary.
The teacher should first model locating the sentence with the main idea in a paragraph provided and making a box around it. The teacher will then ask students to provide additional sentences that could be used in extending this main idea. The student can pair or work on small groups practicing locating the main idea and writing plausible sentences to clarify the story events. General education teacher and co-teacher can rotate working with individuals or supporting the other groups.

Box and Explode.ppt

Standard
LA.4.3.2.1: The student will draft writing by using a prewriting plan to focus on the main idea with ample development of supporting details that shows an understanding of facts and/or opinions.


Reference
Vaughn, S, & Boss, C. S. (2009). Strategies for teaching students with learning and behavior problems (7th ed). Upper Saddle Rivera, New Jersey: Pearson.
Baker, S., Gersten, R., & Graham, S. (2003). Teaching expressive writing to students with learning disabilities: Research-based applications and examples. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(2), 109-23. Retrieved from ERIC database.


What a Character Planner:
To familiarize students with the process by which authors create characters.
Sample



writing.jpg

Students begin the lesson by reading aloud a new entry you wrote in your character’s journal. Remind the students of your story idea before you read. Ask for volunteers to share their journal entries. On the overhead projector, write a letter from your character to another character in your story. Your letter can be for the purpose of sharing information, apologizing, asking for help, saying goodbye, celebrating something, or any other purpose that makes sense in your story idea. Ask students to write a letter from their character to another character in the story. This letter will probably not appear in the story, but it will help students think about the relationship between the two characters. When students have finished their letters, ask for volunteers to share the letters. Ask the class to discuss what each letter says about the relationship between the two characters.
General education teacher and co-teacher can rotate working with individuals or supporting the other groups.
This strategy can be implemented in secondf through fifth grade.


Standards

LA.4.2.2.4: The student will identify and explain the functions and characteristics of a variety of types of text (e.g., reference, children's newspapers, practical/functional texts); and
LA.4.2.2.3: The student will organize information to show an understanding of main ideas within a text through charting, mapping, or summarizing;
LA.4.3.5.3: The student will share the writing with the intended audience.


Citation:
Holzschuher,Cynthia (1995).
"Madeline." A Literature Unit, Teacher Created Materials, Inc., P.O. Retrieve ERIC Education Recourses Information.


Don’t Say No I Can’t Write!
Students d
o some warm up exercises with parts of a sentences using pieces of sentences strips. Have volunteers come to the board to put sentences in order. After the beginning exercise on the board demonstrate what the students will do will do next. Students just slide a sentence strip into one of the stands then find word cards to fill in each blank on the strip—and create logical or silly sentences all by themselves! They get 150 word cards, 50 sentence strips and 4 wooden stands—all in a compartmentalized storage box. (These sentences will be silly sentences).Review procedure to check for clearness in directions. Students will then pick their strips and begin work on their sentence. When the students return to their seats answer any possible questions about their sentences. Some students may have problems reading their sentences. After the students illustrate their sentences they will be able to return to the carpet with their pictures and present them to the class by reading their sentences and showing their illustration. Students will be able to put parts of a sentence together to write a complete sentence.

Reference
Holzschuher,Cynthia (1995).
"Madeline." A Literature Unit, Teacher Created Materials, Inc., P.O. Retrieve ERIC Education Recourses Information.

Don’t Say No I Can’t Write!

Students d
o some warm up exercises with parts of a sentences using pieces of sentences strips. Have volunteers come to the board to put sentences in order. After the beginning exercise on the board demonstrate what the students will do will do next.
Students just slide a sentence strip into one of the stands then find word cards to fill in each blank on the strip—and create logical or silly sentences all by themselves! They get 150 word cards, 50 sentence strips and 4 wooden stands—all in a compartmentalized storage box. (These sentences will be silly sentences).Review procedure to check for clearness in directions. Students will then pick their strips and begin work on their sentence. When the students return to their seats answer any possible questions about their sentences. Some students may have problems reading their sentences. After the students illustrate their sentences they will be able to return to the carpet with their pictures and present them to the class by reading their sentences and showing their illustration. Students will be able to put parts of a sentence together to write a complete sentence. This strategy can be implemented in Kindergarten through first grade.

Sample
sentences_strips.jpg


Standards


LA.1.3.4.5: The student will edit for correct use of subject and verb agreement in simple sentences; and
LA.1.3.4.6: The student will edit for correct use of end punctuation for sentences, including periods, question marks, and exclamation points

Reference
(2009).
WRITE NOW! Mailbox: The Intermediate Edition, 31(6), 21-28. Retrieved from Professional Development Collection database.

Ice Cream Cone Graphic Organize

Students, did you know that the ice-cream cone was invented many years ago? What do you think about the invention of the ice-cream cone? (Chart answers on graph) Today, we are going to create our own ice-cream booklets using graphs. When we are done creating our booklets, we will get into small groups and brainstorm ideas of other popular inventions. You will write your brainstorm ideas down graph. Once we are all done with this, we will gather as a class to share our brainstorm ideas. The students will create their ice-cream cone booklets using the materials provided. The students will brainstorm ideas of other popular inventions. The students will share their brainstorm ideas with the class.
This type of graphic organizer can be used in first through fifth grade.



ice_cream_cone.gif


Standards:


LA.4.2.2.3: The student will organize information to show an understanding of main ideas within a text through charting, mapping, or summarizing;
LA.4.3.5.3: The student will share the writing with the intended audience.


Reference

Cunningham, P. M. & Cunningham, J. W. (1992). Making words: Enhancing the invented spelling-decoding connection. Reading Teacher, 46(2), 106-115.



storyboarding.gif
Storyboarding

This is a type of graphic organizer strategy that assists students with sequencing for narrative type writings and can also be used for expository writing as well. It is an excellent planning method and can be utilized for idea development as well.With this strategy a student uses a graphic organizer which contains boxes which are designed to be sequential in nature. The student then draws a picture and writes key phrases under the illustration. The child can then use these pictures to write the “first draft” of their writing piece and include additional details as well as extensions and elaborations. Storyboarding can be used in first through fifth grade. This strategy will require students to be comfortable with all the “parts” of the graphic organizer and therefore mini-lessons may be required. For example, the teacher may need to review what constitutes what an elaboration is before students can be expected to complete this. Students with fine motor challenges may find it helpful to complete this graphic organizer using computer software. Small groups may also be helpful while students are in the initial phases of the graphic organizer. A co-teacher can assist with individual conferences and provide feedback and lessons on generating written ideas.

Example

http://www.norman.k12.ok.us/092/techscope/storyboard2.gif

Standards

LA.2.3.2.2: The student will draft writing by organizing details into a logical sequence that has a clear beginning, middle and end and an awareness of audience.

Reference

Colvin, C., & Ross, P. (1993). In the classroom. Reading Teacher, 46(7), 620. Retrieved from Professional Development Collection database



BEEF.jpg
BEEF.jpg

B.E.E.F. Graphic Organizer

Research has proven that graphic organizers are effective for helping students keep their thoughts in an organized manner as well assisting with the processing that occurs when a student has an idea in their “mind” and getting it to paper. This graphic organizer is used to assist students with including the “backbone” of a complete paragraph as well as skills related to logical sequencing. The student is also able to check for completeness as well as detail the essential pieces of a paragraph The student completes this graphic organizer independently, but may be completed during a whole group lesson. The completion is very methodical during the initial implementation phase and the students fill out each “part” step by step. The graphic organizer includes the following parts:
B.- Big Idea (Topic Sentence)
E.- Extension (Answers Who? What? When? Where? And Why? Questions)
E.- Elaboration (Includes a personal connection to topic)
F.- Feeling sentence (Closing Sentence)


Students in second through sixth grade love this strategy and it is beneficial.
This graphic organizer can be completed individually as well as in the whole group setting. Initially, the whole group will complete together until the “routine” is learned, and then the student can begin to independently use. Students who are in the beginning writing phases or those who are in the second language acquisition phases, illustrations may be used in the “parts” of the graphic organizer. Additionally, the teacher and co-teacher may hold conferences individually as well as small groups to discuss the contents of their organizers.

Example

external image x-zip.png B.E.E.F. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER.pptx

Standards:
LA.2.3.1.1: The student will prewrite by generating ideas from multiple sources.


Reference:
Sandmel, K., Brindle, M., Harris, K., Lane, K., Graham, S., Nackel, J., et al. Making it work.
Teaching Exceptional Children, 42(2), 22-33. Retrieved
from Professional Development Database.




Flip_Book.jpg
Flip_Book.jpg

Flip Books

This strategy includes the creation of a “tangible” object to organize, categorize, and encourage the written response of students’’ thoughts. Flip Books can be used when writing narratives as well as expository writing pieces. Additionally, they can be used for categorizing skills such as comparing, contrasting as well as writing short responses to literature for comprehension purposes. The students create a Flip Book based on the type of writing they will be completing. Each “flap” of the book contains a label and is filled with data/information in written form specific to that item. The student may draw an illustration as well as a sentence /phrases related to the illustration or skill. For example, a student may create a Flip Book contrasting a school day and a weekend day. On one flap they will draw a picture of a school day activity and write a short sentence. On the next flap they will draw a picture of a weekend activity and a short sentence related to the illustration.
This is an excellent strategy that can be implemented in grades 1 through 6
. The Flip Book can be modified to meet individual students’ needs and grade level. Additionally, the amount of text to be included on each flap can also vary according to the writing task as well as students’ ability level. The information contained within the Flip Book can be used to as a “skeleton” in which additional details can be added to the full writing tasks of students.

Example

**http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/interactives/flipbook/**

Standards
LA.2.3.5.1: The student will produce, illustrate, and share writing for a variety of compositions.

Reference:

Areglado, N, & Dill, M. (1997).
Let's write: a practical guide to teaching writing in the early grades. New York: Scholastic, Inc.

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