Making words
Using tiles to make words give the students a kinesthetic input that students tend to enjoy. This strategy is mostly used in primary grades. It is also used by resource teachers for remediation at different grade levels.
Different letters/tiles are given to the students for them to manipulate and create different words. Students start by making the simplest word possible and move toward making the secret or more complex word using all the letters. Emphasis is given to the name and sound of each letter and to the patterns in word formation. Students can work independently, pairs, and/or small groups with teacher. General education teacher and co-teacher can rotate between attending to these activities in a small group and supporting the other students in the classroom.
making_words_pict.jpg


Standard:
LA.1.3.4.1: The student will edit for correct use of common spelling patterns (e.g., onset and rimes, word families, and simple CVC words) and conventional spelling of high frequency words.

Reference:

Cunningham, P. M. & Cunningham, J. W. (1992). Making words: Enhancing the invented spelling-decoding connection. Reading Teacher, 46(2), 106-115. Retrieved from ERIC.


Word Study

Memorization alone is not an effective method of improving the spelling skills of students with learning and behavior problems. By using the word study strategy, we are helping the students to focus their attention to the patterns and sounds of letters and their relationship with the written word. Students benefit from learning to analyze the patterns, phonics, affixes, and high frequency words at all grade levels.
In a class discussion the teacher can ask what letter is necessary to add to the sound at to make the word rat. The students participate by answering the correct letter the teacher is looking for to make the new word with that rime. The students will also write the words, sounding the letter and the patterns in the words. The students also practice learning different affixes meanings and writing examples of those words. General education teacher and co-teacher can rotate between attending to these activities in a small group and supporting the other students in the classroom.

Standard:

LA.1.3.4.1: The student will edit for correct use of common spelling patterns (e.g., onset and rimes, word families, and simple CVC words) and conventional spelling of high frequency words.

Reference:

Henry, M. (1997). The decoding/spelling curriculum: Integrated decoding and spelling instruction from pre-school to early secondary school. Dyslaxia, 3, 178-189.


Johnson and Myklebust Technique
Teaching partial recall to total recall is a strategy to help the students to spell the word given after studying the word. The word is first given complete and the students have to fill the spaces left blank in the word. The student may have to fill in the vowels or consonants in the missing spaces in the word. This strategy is mostly used in upper primary grades.
For example:
with
wit_
_ith
wi_ _
w _ _ _
_ _ _ _
The co-teacher can support the general education or special education teacher while they teach the whole group. The co-teacher can also take turns supporting small groups as they complete this activity.

Standard:
LA.3.3.4.1: The student will edit for correct use of spelling, using spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, diphthongs, consonant digraphs, CVC words, CCVC words, CVCC words, affixes) and using a dictionary or other resources as necessary.

Reference:

Johnson, D. J., & Myklebust, H. R. (1967).
Learning disabilities: Educational principles and practices. New York: Grune & Stratton.


Doublet Spelling

Students with spelling difficulties can use spelling pyramids to enhance their spelling skills on a weekly basis. The goal for this strategy is to write one letter down at a time on a line. Every time you move to the next line, you add a letter. If you have a 4 letter word then you will have four lines filled up. This can be used in all grades first through sixth or higher depending on the child’s needs. This is a great strategy to use for ELL and learners with disabilities. It can be used in many different types of room environments. If you are using this strategy in a self contained setting then you could use tactile items such as alphabet pasta to make the words. You would still start with one letter and add a letter to the next row. You could also use this strategy when co-teaching. You can use the same strategy as the other teacher but you could vary the instruction by teaching the strategy with different materials.

Word_Pyramids.jpg



Standards
LA.2.1.4.1 - The student will use knowledge of spelling patterns (e.g., vowel diphthongs, difficult word families);

Reference
Notenboom, A., & Reitsma, P. (2007). Spelling dutch doublets: Children's learning of a phonological and morphological spelling rule.
Scientific Studies of Reading, 11(2), 133-150.

Close the book, recall, write it down

Students with spelling difficulties can use close the book, recall and write it down process to help them learn how to spell words. It teaches them the steps that need to be taken in, in order to learn how to spell a word before it becomes automatic. This strategy can be used whole group when teaching how to use it, in pairs or small groups and/or independently for children to use individually.
This strategy would be most useful in grades three through six where the students would be honest and follow the procedures correctly. Educators can use this strategy in many ways with all kinds of spelling words. This can be used in a self contained class, especially if the child makes a foldable using this strategy. Co-teachers can use this strategy for differentiated instruction based on the child’s needs. This strategy can be adapted to the child’s needs. It can be used with different levels of words.


Example:
1) Look at the word and say the letters
2) Close the book
3) Rcall what the student saw
4) Write the word
5) Check to see if you are right


Standards
LA.4.1.4.1 - The student will recognize knowledge of spelling patterns

Reference

References
Glenn, D. (2009). Close the book. recall. write it down. Chronicle of Higher Education, 55(34), A1.

Big words


Students with spelling difficulties may benefit from making the longest list of words possible by changing only one letter at a time. They begin with a big word and try to make as many smaller words as pssible. As the child gets better with the strategy you can decrease the amount of letters in a word. This strategy can be used in grades second through sixth. This strategy can be used whole group, small group or independently. It can be used when there is five minutes as a filler activity or as an instructional activity. It can be used in a self contained class to build phonics and spelling skills. It can be used when co-teaching because each teacher can teach the same activity but differentiate the instruction based on students needs.


Example: Thanksgiving
1) thanks
2) sank
3) hang
4) sang


Standards
LA.2.1.4.1 - The student will use knowledge of spelling patterns (e.g., vowel diphthongs, difficult word families);

Reference
Cunningham, P. (1998). The multisyllabic word dilemma: Helping students build meaning, spell, and read "big" words.
Reading and Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, 14(2), 189-218.

Test Study Test:
Content- Students are first tested on a list of words then study the missed words after the test. Some strategies that can be used with Test Study Test are verbal mediation, which is saying the word while writing it or spelling it aloud to a partner.
This strategy can be used in the primary grades. Connections approach (Berninger, 1998)-For students with writing difficulties they can use a speech to text software or type in the words. Cues and prompts can be given throughout the strategy. Visuals can be used throughout. The teacher can also model the alphabet principle to introduce spelling-phoneme connections for students who need more intensive instruction (Berninger, 1998).1) Teacher says word, points to teach letter, and names it. 2) Child names word and letters. 3) Child shown a copy of the word with the onset and rime printed in different colors. 4) Teacher says the sound and simultaneously points to the onset and rime in order.
5) Child looks at, points to, and says the sound of the onset and rime in order.

Standards
LA.2.1.4.1: The student will use knowledge of spelling patterns

Reference

Vaughn, S., Bos, C. S. (2009).
Strategies for teaching students with learning and behavior problems (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Berninger, et al. (2000). A connectionist approach to making the predictability of english orthography explicit to at-risk beginning readers: evidence for alternative, effective strategies.
Developmental Neuropsychology. 17(2), p241-271

Five Step Word Study Strategy:

Content- With Five Step Word Study, students learn and rehears five steps and practice them with the teacher and then alone. Primary grades benefit with this strategy. This strategy can be implemented in the following way: 1) Say the word. 2) Write and say the word. 3) Check the word. 4) Trace and say the word. 5) Write the word from memory and check. 6) Repeat the first five steps. The student says the word jam, then the teacher has the student say each sound in the word as the student or teacher writes it. Then the student checks the word. The student says the word again as they trace it, then the word is taken away and they have to spell it from memory.The teachers will model the procedure until the student can do it on their own. Visuals of the steps can be provided to the student. Students can also practice this strategy with another class member.

Standards
LA.2.1.4.1: The student will use knowledge of spelling patterns

References
Vaughn, S., Bos, C. S. (2009).
Strategies for teaching students with learning and behavior problems (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Young, C. (2008). How is contextualized spelling used to support reading in first-grade core reading programs?
Reading Improvement. 45, 26-46

Word Sorting
Content- word sorting is an activity in which student organize words printed on cards into columns. Word sorting is an extension of the use of word banks. Word sorting can be used in reading and writing activities. Different examples of word sorts are concept sorts where words are categorized by concepts or semantic features. A spelling sort is used to make connections with pronunciations and word origins. This strategy can be implemented in grades Kindergarten through fifth grade. Students will work together or individually to learn the word families at, an, ap and ack. The students will have four columns with the word families labeled on each column. Students will then have to take words from the board and put them into the appropriate column. Students who have trouble seeing the board can have a copy of the words at their desk. The teacher can model for the students the activity before they do it, and provide prompts and cues for students who need addition help. For ESOL students the words can be read aloud to them. For an extension activity students may go on the computer and do word sorting using an interactive website.

Example
Interactive word sort: http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/interactives/wordfamily/

Standards
LA.2.1.4.1: The student will use knowledge of spelling patterns
LA.2.1.4.5: The student will recognize high frequency words

References
Zutell, J. (1998). Word sorting: a developmental spelling approach to word study for delayed readers
. Reading & Writing Quarterly. 14(2), 219


Visualization Approach-Spelling

Students hunt down the spelling errors in a short passage of high-interest current events text. Students in the elementary grades would benefit from this strategy. In this lesson, students become spelling detectives as they seek out the spelling errors in current events news stories. This activity can be done independently or in pairs; the activity can be teacher- or self-corrected. To prepare this activity, select a text passage of high interest to students. The resources listed below are great sources of high-interest, grade appropriate current events news stories for students. Simply copy the text into a work sheet and edit the text to include ten or 15 spelling errors; misspelled words should be words students should be able to spell, since the emphasis is on finding/editing errors of spelling in text and learning about current events. Each passage should be of appropriate length for your students. You might double-space the type so students can correct the spelling directly above misspelled words; or students might circle misspelled words and write the correct spellings in the margins of the work sheet. These strategies can implemented through self-contained -this cooperative learning strategy which promotes social skill development in both small and large groups for all grade and ability levels. Co-teaching- The content area teacher will be responsible for serving as the lessons facilitator by promoting discussions and problem solving among the teams and directing the sharing of findings with the class. The ESE teacher will rotate through the cooperative learning groups to aim with thinking processes and promote communication and social skill development between individuals and their pair.


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Standards
LA.2.1.4.2: The student will apply knowledge of spelling patterns to identify syllables
LA.2.1.4.3: The student will decode phonetically regular one-syllable and multi-syllable words in isolation and in context
LA.2.1.4.4: The student will identify irregularly spelled words (e.g., laugh) and words with special vowel spellings (e.g., bread)
LA.2.1.4.5: The student will recognize high frequency words



Reference

Ashton, Tamarah.M.(1999) Making Writing Meaningful in the Inclusive Classroom.TEACHING Exceptional Children, v32 n2 p24-27, Retrieved from ERIC

Wbsite:http://www.wowhead.com/?spell=62762

Rhyme Helper
Learning spelling words does not have to be all drill. In this activity the students will be rhyming and playing with their own names and then doing the same things for their spelling words. First through thried grade would benefit fromt his strategy. In this lesson student can be used with any spelling words. The students can use rhyming to remember their spelling words. They connect rules and spellings of words they already know to their new words. Ask the students if they have ever been misunderstood. Listen to the song from the tape. Ask them to come up with rhymes for their own names. Introduce from between 1 and 5 new spelling words. Ask them to come with rhymes for the words. Ask them if the spelling of their spelling words are similar to the rhyming words they came up with. Let them practice writing their spelling words.These strategies can implemented through self-contained -this cooperative learning strategy which promotes social skill development in both small and large groups for all grade and ability levels. Co-teaching- The content area teacher will be responsible for serving as the lessons facilitator by promoting discussions and problem solving among the teams and directing the sharing of findings with the class. The ESE teacher will rotate through the cooperative learning groups to aim with thinking processes and promote communication and social skill development between individuals and their pair.




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Standards
LA.2.1.4.1: The student will use knowledge of spelling patterns (e.g., vowel diphthongs, difficult word families)

LA.2.1.4.2: The student will apply knowledge of spelling patterns to identify syllables;
LA.2.1.4.3: The student will decode phonetically regular one-syllable and multi-syllable words in isolation and in context;

LA.2.1.4.4: The student will identify irregularly spelled words (e.g., laugh) and words with special vowel spellings (e.g., bread)


Reference
Ruth Campbell ; Helen Wright ,(2005) Human Experimental Psychology, 1464-0740, Volume 40, Issue 4, 1988, Pages 771 – 788.
The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A.

Teaching Spelling Patterns
Students will develop emerging ability to: discriminate visual similarities and differences in words. Students in Kindergarten through sixth grade will benefit fromt his strategy. Start with a whole text. Be alert for children's books, poems, and experience charts that make use of words containing these common rimes. Use such books, poems, etc. during Shared Reading to draw attention to that particular word pattern. For example, the Nursery Rhyme Jack and Jill went up the hill can be used to introduce the rime ill or The Cat in the Hat can be used to focus on the at rime. Focus on the parts. Follow up these occasions with opportunities for children to generate word families using the rimes upon which you are focusing. Include guided practice. Involve children in both saying and making the words. They can write them in list format on individual slips of paper or take turns writing them on an experience chart. Be sure to draw students' attention to the parts of the words that change and the ones that stay the same. Alternatively, you can use materials such as chalkboards or letter cards so that children can erase initial consonants or substitute letter cards in order to make new words. "Make read. Change it to bead. What letter did you take away? What letter did you add?" Apply the new knowledge to a whole text. Teach children to use their knowledge of onsets and rimes to decode new words. Model this procedure during Shared Language or Shared Reading. Have students compare an unknown word to already known words and then use context to confirm their predictions. This strategy can easily be implemented in the classroom during independent work time as to allow students to build independent work habits as well as master spelling words and patterns. The teacher may also use this strategy in a small group setting and scaffolding assistance to students who have difficulties with transference. For students with fine motor exceptionalities, the teacher could have students use a speech to text program on the computer or a word processing program whereas students can type the information as opposed to writing. A co-teacher could monitor students as they work independently and provide necessary feedback and assistance as needed. ESOL students can also benefit from this strategy and may use chart to fine errors and compare an unknown word to already known words and then use context to confirm their predictions. The procedure that follows is an example of whole, to part, to whole instruction and of teaching skills in meaningful contexts.






ack
ain
ake
ale
all
ame
an
ank
ap
ask
at
ate
aw

ay
eat
ell
est
ice
ick
ide
ight
ill
in
ine
ing

ink
ip
ir
ock
oke
op
or
ore
uck
ug
ump
unk



Standards
LA.2.1.4.2: The student will apply knowledge of spelling patterns to identify syllables
LA.2.1.4.3: The student will decode phonetically regular one-syllable and multi-syllable words in isolation and in context
LA.2.1.4.4: The student will identify irregularly spelled words (e.g., laugh) and words with special vowel spellings (e.g., bread)
LA.2.1.4.5: The student will recognize high frequency words



Reference
Elaine R. Silliman ; Ruth Huntley Bahr ;Michelle L. Peters (2006). Developmental Neuropsychology, 1532-6942, Volume 29, Issue 1, 2006,ages 93 – 123Journal for Research in Spelling Education, 11(4), 1233-64.

Marilyn M. Fairbanks ; Betsy M. Hobbs; (2005). Literacy Research and Instruction, 1938-8063, Volume 21, Issue 3, 1982, Pages 226 – 236.Retrieve Eric Education Research Information Center.

Self-Questioning
Self- Questioning was developed so that the student may be actively engaged in the learning process as well as to encourage higher level thinking skills. The students are given an opportunity to genuinely think about not only a particular word, but also begin to recognize the various spelling patterns that go along with other words that meet these criteria. This strategy also assists with multi-sensory learning as students listen, write, and then visually check the spelling. This particular strategy is helpful when students are initially introduced to their weekly spelling words. It does promote an independent work habit as well as self-monitoring skills. The students initially ask themselves if they know what a word is when they hear it. They then “think” about how the word is spelled and write it out. The student then looks at their spelling and underlines any part of the word they think may be incorrect. Independently, they check the word for errors and rewrite anything that may be incorrect. Research has shown that this strategy is highly engaging as the student is an active participant throughout this process.
The strategy can easily be implemented in first through fifth grade, and can be modified once students learn the "routine." This strategy can easily be implemented in the classroom during independent work time as to allow students to build independent work habits as well as master spelling words and patterns. The teacher may also use this strategy in a small group setting and scaffolding assistance to students who have difficulties with transference. For students with fine motor exceptionalities, the teacher could have students use a speech to text program on the computer or a word processing program whereas students can type the information as opposed to writing. A co-teacher could monitor students as they work independently and provide necessary feedback and assistance as needed. ESOL students can also benefit from this strategy and may underline errors and re-write them in color to serve as a visual cue.

Example of Self-Questioning

img019.jpg

Standards
LA.3.3.4.1: The student will edit for correct use of spelling using spelling patterns and generalizations.

Reference
Manset-Williamson, G., Dunn, M., Hinshaw, R. and Nelson, J. (2008). The Impact of Self– Questioning Strategy Use on the Text-Reader Assisted Comprehension of Students with Reading Disabilities. International Journal of Special Education, 23(1), 123-135. Retrieved from ERIC database.


crayons.png

Color Coded Spelling

This is a fun and interactive way for children to learn their spelling words. It is engaging and has proven to be effective with children of all learning styles as well as ability levels. One of the many benefits for using this strategy is that students become “visually” in tune with the spelling patterns and are able to then transfer these skills to decoding in reading. This strategy uses a “color coding” key which serves as visual cues for the spelling as well as decoding of words. For example: the student may write all vowels for the word in red and all consonants in blue. As the student becomes more advanced with phonemic awareness, they are able to add more “color coding” to several of the word (i.e., color code digraphs peach or long vowels purple). The students use the same “color coding key” consistently which assists with long term memory of spelling patterns. This approach is very engaging and enjoyable for students. This strategy can be implemented in Kindergarten through sixth grade. Students can work with this strategy in the whole group setting, cooperative pairs, and small groups. The teacher and co-teacher can work together in monitoring students’ progress using the “color coding” and provide scaffolding as needed. For students who have fine motor difficulties, the ability to use a word processing program in which the font can be color coded is possible and would be effective. The teacher may also note that a child is having difficulty with a particular pattern and could then provide additional words with a specific pattern, and the “color code” would provide an additional visual cue. This strategy can also be implemented in other content areas, and not just with regard to spelling.

Example:



Standards
LA.2.1.4.1 The student will use knowledge of spelling patterns (vowel diphthongs, different word families)


Reference
Turner, A. (1984, May 1) Color-Coded Vowels and Spelling with Visual Cues in Beginning Reading. Retrieved from ERIC database.


color_coded.jpg
Cloze Spelling
This strategy helps students memorize how words are spelled using visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles. This method allows students to understand how vowels and consonants relate to each other when spelling and writing words.In this strategy, the student goes through four steps to spell words. First, the child looks and studies the word which is written on an index card. Then, the child is presented with the written word with “blanks” where the vowels are, and they are to write the entire word. Next, the child is presented with the same word only with “missing consonants”, and the child is again to write the entire word. Last, the student will listen to the word and write the entire word with no visual cues. Students in Kindergarten through fifth grade would benefit from this strategy and will need assistance and scaffolding in the primary grades. The same strategy can be used using technology such as Power Point where the students can independently work on this strategy and the level of words can be changed to include intervention as well as enrichment opportunities. For ESOL students, the teacher may pair the word with a graphic representation so the child can make meaningful connections. Whiteboards can also be used in the whole group setting as to allow an opportunity for checking for understanding. This strategy can be im plemented int eh whole group as well as small group settings.

Example




Standards
LA.2.1.4.1 The student will use knowledge of spelling patterns (vowel diphthongs, different word families)

References

Kanza, D. (2003). Teaching children with reading difficulties. Australia: Social Science Press.